Glossary

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Absorption (absorptive) capaci...

This usually means the ability of a country or organization to receive aid and use it effectively. Developing countries often lack this capacity. For example, a country may receive enough money to enable all its children to attend primary school - but owing to a lack of teachers, lack of schools or a poor administrative system, it is impossible to spend this money in the short term. Work must first be done to train teachers, build schools and improve the efficiency of the system - thus raising the country's 'absorptive capacity'.

Acceding - country

This is a candidate country that has met the Copenhagen criteria and has completed negotiations for joining the European Union.

Accession

Becoming a member of the EU following a process of alignment with EU norms.

Accession criteria (Copenhagen...

Any country seeking membership of the European Union (EU) must conform to the conditions set out by Article 49 and the principles laid down in Article 6(1) of the Treaty on European Union. Relevant criteria were established by the Copenhagen European Council in 1993 and strengthened by the Madrid European Council in 1995. To join the EU, a new Member State must meet three criteria: political: stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities; economic: existence of a functioning market economy and the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union; acceptance of the Community acquis: ability to take on the obligations of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union. For the European Council to decide to open negotiations, the political criterion must be satisfied. Any country that wishes to join the Union must meet the accession criteria. The pre-accession strategy and accession negotiations provide the necessary framework and instruments.

Accession partnership

Accession partnerships are a pre-accession strategy instrument, which determines the candidate countries' particular needs on which pre-accession assistance should be targeted and provides a framework for: the short and medium-term priorities, objectives and conditions determined for each candidate country on the basis of the accession criteria (Copenhagen criteria) in accordance with the Commission's opinion on its membership application; pre-accession assistance. An accession partnership is established for each candidate country to provide guidance and encouragement during preparations for membership. To this end, each candidate country draws up a National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA), which sets out a timetable for putting the partnership into effect. Each candidate country also draws up an action plan for strengthening its administrative and judicial capacities. The accession partnership may also be revised in the light of new developments, especially any new priorities identified during the pre-accession process.

Acquis communautaire

This is a French term meaning, essentially, "the EU as it is" – in other words, the rights and obligations that EU countries share. The "acquis" includes all the EU's treaties and laws, declarations and resolutions, international agreements on EU affairs and the judgments given by the Court of Justice. It also includes action that EU governments take together in the area of "justice and home affairs" and on the Common Foreign and Security Policy. "Accepting the acquis" therefore, means taking the EU as you find it. Candidate countries have to accept the "acquis" before they can join the EU, and make EU law part of their own national legislation. For a fuller explanation, see "Community acquis" in the glossary.

Activities

Works and acts to be done (and means to be used) in order to reach the expected results. They summarise the action programme of the project.

Activity Schedule

This is a type of “Gantt Chart” which resembles a bar chart and graphically illustrates which activity of the project should be carried out when, in which order, and for how long. The Activity Schedule can also be used to determine the milestones to be followed in monitoring the development of the project and in appointing responsibilities to team members each step of the way.

Agenda

This term literally means "things to be done". It normally refers to the list of items for discussion at a meeting, but politicians also use it as a jargon term meaning "things we want to achieve". For example, the EU’s "Social Agenda" sets out what the Union wants to achieve, over the next few years, in terms of employment and social policies. It forms part of the “Lisbon Strategy.”

Analysis of Objectives

Determines and affirms the benefits that are anticipated from the outcome (result) of the project. These are the benefits that are prioritised by the beneficiaries of the project. As a result of the analysis of the objectives, an Objective Tree, or a hierarchical ranking of the objectives, can be created.

Analysis of Strategies

An evaluation of alternative methods that can be used to reach the project objectives, and the subsequent choice of one or more methods to be used in the proposed project.

Ankara Agreement

In 1963, Turkey signed an Association Agreement with the EEC, which became known as the Ankara Agreement. The Ankara Agreement envisioned three phases for Turkey’s gradual accession to the EU Common Market through the establishment of a custom union.

Annual National Programme

The annual National Programme covers the actual projects and programmes designed to directly support the accession process.

Applicant country

This means a country that has applied to join the European Union. Once its application has been officially accepted, it becomes a candidate country.For further details, see EU portal.

Application for EU membership

The Treaty on European Union (Article 49) lays down the conditions a candidate country must meet to become a Member State, namely it must be a European state, and in accordance with Article 6.1 of the Treaty, must respect the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law. The application is submitted to the Council, which adopts its decision unanimously after consulting the European Commission and after receiving the assent of the European Parliament.

Appraisal

The analysis of a proposed project within the framework of pre-determined criteria to determine its value and acceptability. This is the last stage for a proposal before it is approved as a financially acceptable project. During this process, the feasibility and the suitability of the project’s objectives and the rationality of the estimated costs are investigated. The term “Appraisal” is often used synonymously with “Feasibility study”.

Appraisal Phase

This is the third phase of the project cycle. The Appraisal Phase envisages that a Project should be detailed as a feasibility project, to be evaluated and investigated by the staff of the EU Commission insofar as its values and consistency with sectoral policies is concerned.

Association Agreement

An association agreement is a bilateral agreement between the European Union and a third country. In the context of accession to the European Union, it serves as the basis for implementation of the accession process. Turkey currently has an association agreement.

Association Committee

The Association Committee brings together experts from EU and Turkey to examine Association related technical issues and to prepare the agenda of the Association Council. The negotiations chapters are discussed in eight sub-committees organised as follows: Agriculture and Fisheries Committee Internal Market and Competition Committee Trade, Industry and ECSC Products Committee Economic and Monetary Issues Committee Innovation Committee Transport, Environment and Energy Committee Regional Development, Employment and Social Policy Committee Customs, Taxation, Drug Trafficking and Money Laundering Committee

Association Council

The Council is made up of representatives of the Turkish government, the European Council and the European Commission. It is instrumental in shaping and orienting Turkey-EU relations. Its aim is to implement the association agreement in political, economic and commercial issues. The Association Council meets twice a year at the ministerial level. The Council takes decisions unanimously. Turkey and the EU side have one vote each.

Assumptions

These are the external factors which can affect the advancement or success of a project, but which are beyond the project manager’s control. Assumptions constitute the fourth column of the “Logical Framework”, and are formulated with a positive statement. Example: “Reformation of the Criminal Court of Justice will be implemented successfully.”