European Union Legal Framework

France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) by signing the Treaty of Paris in 1951.

The same six countries founded the European Economic Community (EEC)in 1957 by signing the Treaty of Rome to establish economic unity in coal and steel industries, as well as in others


The Single European Act

The critical document for the establishment of the Single Market is the Single European Act, signed in 1986 and came into effect on July 1, 1987. With the Single European Act, the Common Market objective was redefined, the powers of the Parliament were increased, and mechanisms for decision-making with qualified majority vote were introduced.

The Maastricht Treaty

With the Maastricht Treaty, which came into effect in 1993, the European Community became the European Union. With this agreement, the Economic and Monetary Union defined a new structure for cooperation in the fields of Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs.

The Treaty of Amsterdam

The Treaty of Amsterdam, which came into effect on May 1, 1999, reiterated European citizenship and stated that EU European citizenship would not replace national citizenship. Moreover, the Parliament’s decision-making mechanisms were strengthened by changes in legislation and co-decision procedures.

The Treaty of Nice

The Treaty of Nice, which was signed on February 26, 2001, came into effect in February 2003. With this treaty, the Council, the distribution of votes of the member states of the Parliament and the number of members of the Commission have been reorganized to include the new member countries.

Treaty of Lisbon

On December 14, 2007, the heads of the EU member countries and governments gathered in Lisbon, Portugal, by virtue of holding Presidency of the Council of the EU at the time, and signed the Treaty of Lisbon. The Treaty, signed by the leaders of 27 member countries at the Jerónimos Monastery in Lisbon, replaced the “Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe” signed on October 29, 2004, but not ratified.


All EU practices are based on the treaties voluntarily and democratically accepted by the Member States. The previously signed treaties were updated according to the changes in society.

Useful Documents

  • THE MAASTRICHT TREATY 1992

1992MaastrichtAntlasmasi.doc

  • THE TREATY OF AMSTERDAM (ENG) 1997

amsterdamtreaty.pdf

  • TREATY ESTABLISHING A CONSTITUTION FOR EUROPE (ENG) 2004

anayasal_antlasma_ozet.pdf

  • THE SINGLE EUROPEAN ACT (ENG) 1987

SingleEuropeanAct-TekSenet.pdf


Useful Documents